Understanding Basic Music Theory. Collection edited by: .. you are learning. You may print these exercises as a PDF worksheet5 if you like. If you think music theory is complicated, you need to know this music theory pdf If you struggle to learn music theory because of these factors, do not worry, that. by someone, know that there might be a newer version — or more pages — at bacttemcocani.ml now let's learn some music theory! just don't sell it.
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Basic Music Theory: How to Read, Write, and Understand Written Music “Basic Music Theory by Jonathan Harnum is an excellent book for people of all levels. This is the book Music Theory (v. ). .. Introduction to Seventh Chords: Five Basic Types. Chapter 7: Basic Analytical Techniques: The Four Parameters. One of the most basic elements in music is the note. In written music, it might look like this: Or this (if there are more than one): or. The five horizontal lines on.
Considering the content of this text and that it is intended as an introductory source for beginning students, I believe complete clarity should be the goal. Consistency The terms and concepts presented in this text are consistent throughout.
Modularity rating: 3 While sections of this text could be subdivided for use in coursework, substantial page lengths on the very first chapter, along with the nearly as lengthy second chapter, cause this to rate lower. Those first two chapters are so long I know my students would despair any reading assignment solely on the basis of length.
I do not see a purpose why they should all be grouped together. Additionally, the break between learning about notation to then wait for two more chapters to learn about Notes and Scales seems illogical in the extreme.
Interface rating: 5 No noticeable defects in the interface. The effect is much less dramatic. Non-diatonic progressions In the previous discussion, we have seen that the V - I progression is an extremely strong and effective way to establish a tonality.
Progressions that enforce and establish a tonality are called "cadences".
Using the basic principle of the V - I cadence, we can actually go a step further. What happens here is that some chords are preceded by their respective V7 chords, even though they are not diatonic to the original tonality. So, the Am chord is preceded by its own V7 chord in the A harmonic minor tonality that is to say E7 , and the Dm chord is preceded by its own V7 chord in the D harmonic minor tonality that is to say A7. Everything happens as if Am and Dm temporarily became the new tone centres.
Those foreign V7 chords are called "extended dominant chords". So how about also introducing the ii chord of the local temporary tone centre, and not just the V7? However, this is not a very frequent substitution, because that vii7 b5 chord really doesnt sound so good although you may have a different opinion, of course.
But again, we seem to have a problem, in that Db certainly doesn't belong to C Major. And yet, this progression sounds great; the halftone bass movement in particular is very interesting and soft. Let's have a closer look at what happens here. The Db and Ab notes being foreign to C Major will also be more than happy to resolve one halftone down onto C and G respectively. So this chord actually creates the same effect as a V7 chord, and is therefore functionally equivalent to it.
In general, it is always possible to replace a V7 chord with a major chord rooted a halftone above the tonic of the current key. This is called a "substitution dominant".
Then Dbm7 is the ii7 in the tonality for which Gb7 is the dominant chord! Usage As you can see, there are quite a few possibilities! All these extensions and substitutions and bass movements can be used to spice up the harmonic structure of a song.
How much spicing is a matter of taste.
Although you are ultimately the only judge, I suggest using these harmonic devices with care in mainstream rock music, because they will quickly start to sound very jazzy. At this point we also need to link back to the previous section characteristic notes. We have concentrated on the chords and their progressions here, but you can't really dissociate the chords harmonic background from the melody.
Melody notes do cause chord extensions e. The progression can be affected by these extensions, and you need to consider the whole thing globally.
The target notes are always characteristic notes; since by definition they belong to the chords, they will always sound OK, at least technically. But you should also be careful to select the other notes so as to avoid chord migrations.
Chord migration We have seen that chords can be subdivided into three basic categories: tonic, subdominant and dominant. While chords of a given category can always be freely substituted for one another, they should never be replaced by chords of another category. If we happen to play a long B note over that chord, we effectively transform it into a Dm6 chord, which belongs to the dominant group, since the chord now contains the tritone the interval F B is now part of the chord.
This implies a resolution that is not likely to happen the next chord the band is going to play is probably not a C ; the harmonic effect of this is disastrous. Similarly, suppose the current chord of a C major progression is C. If we play a long F note over it, we make that chord a member of the subdominant group since it now contains the subdominant and the result will be far from pleasant, because the subdominant will clash with the 3rd.
Please note that this is different from playing the 4th instead of the 3rd: in that case, you are playing a sus4 chord whichever way you go after that. If the current chord is Em another tonic chord , the subdominant note F will introduce the tritone and the chord will now belong to the dominant group.
Let us now consider what happens when the current chord is the V7. Playing the tonic C over G7 will in effect resolve the chord and destroy the resolution effect that was planned by the band.
So, to avoid chord migration, consider the following: On tonic chords, avoid the subdominant 4th On subdominant chords, avoid the leading tone 7th On dominant chords, avoid the tonic because playing a tonic will unduly anticipate the resolution: you will be playing ahead of the harmony Again, these rules apply mostly for downbeats and relatively long notes.
In this section we will try to analyse why this is the case, and what makes up a good melody. This is clearly useful to a lead guitarist who wants to play melodic solos; it is equally important to songwriters who want to write the next summer hit, and it is even important to bass players we have already briefly touched upon this subject in the previous section. The theory of melodic movements is very old.
Originally it aimed at determining which intervals would be considered appropriate and feasible for the human voice to sing, and for the human ear to hear. Some parts of this theory may be considered outdated by todays standards, or applicable in specific genres only mostly classic.
But before breaking the rules, it is useful to at least understand them. This theory also constitutes the foundation for the study of harmonic movements or voice leading techniques i.
As this is a fairly complex subject, we will limit our study to the most important aspects. Theory When two or more distinct notes are sung or played sequentially, the melody is said to make movements.
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There are two types of melodic movements: Step movement: the melody moves from one note to an adjacent note by a 2nd Leap movement: the distance between two consecutive notes is larger than a 2nd. In general, step movements are preferred over leap movements; when the melody contains leaps, some intervals will be favoured, other intervals will be tolerated, and a few intervals will in principle be forbidden. Recommended Movements All the movements implying intervals that are easy to sing are favoured; those intervals can be minor, major or perfect, but will typically be small or moderate from the minor 2nd to the minor 6th.
As an exception the octave is also accepted; despite being clearly very large, it is very easy to sing. Forbidden Movements All movements implying large intervals from major 6th upwards or dissonant intervals augmented 2nd, augmented 4th, major and minor 7th must be avoided.
Large intervals such as a 7th or a 9th should be broken down in two or more smaller intervals; if only one intermediate note is used, it is recommended that one of the two resulting intervals be a 2nd.
For example, in C major, the ascending interval C B should be broken down into C A 15 B or possibly C D B although the first solution would probably be preferred by most listeners. Tolerated Movements Chromatic movements i. The diminished 5th interval is in principle forbidden see above but it is tolerated if it resolves by a step movement onto a note belonging to that interval. For example, suppose the movement goes from B to F aug 5th in C major; as such, this movement is not acceptable.
To make it tolerable, you need to resolve the dissonance onto an E i. Similarly, let us consider the descending movement F B; this time you need to resolve the dim 5th on a C a note located a step away from B and that is part of the interval. The same tolerance and the same rule apply to the dim 4th which you wont find in the major scale but can occur in the harmonic and melodic minor modes , and also to the minor 7th which is found in the harmonic minor mode ; for example, in D harmonic minor relative of F major , the movement C - F needs to be resolved onto an E.
As indicated above, the major 6th is in principle to be avoided too large ; however, when the movement is from the first degree of the tonality to the sixth degree then the interval is accepted and only then. Double leaps implying larger intervals than the major 3rd should be avoided, except when the last note is an octave away from the first note. The leading tone 7th degree should always be followed by the tonic, except when the next chord does not contain the tonic note, or if the leading tone does not belong to a V chord.
For example, in C major, if B is part of a G chord, its normal resolution would be a C note.
Minor 7th chord
However, if B is part of an Em chord, or if the next chord is not a C chord, that B note is free to go anywhere it wants. Usage It is extremely instructive to analyze existing melodies, and I suggest you do that for as many melodies as you can; you will find that most of them actually stick to the rules quite well.
Some topics are discussed well enough, while others Some topics are discussed well enough, while others leave or gloss over standard sections. In other cases, the author chooses topics either adjacent to or nearly unrelated to standard music theory texts.
Indeed, I thought everyone was overstating the issue a bit until I checked it for myself. Far too long, with portions that could have been incorporated into other chapters in the book with ease. Accuracy The book is quite accurate.
The information provided seems well researched and factual.Ornette Coleman. Everybody needs to learn. Here is a very simple example.
One of them was that any song should always terminate on the tonal centre. Let's take a simple example to start with.