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The Embodied Image book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in. Wiley: The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in Architecture Juhani Pallasmaa. The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in Architecture Juhani Pallasmaa . All artistic and architectural effects are evoked, mediated and experienced.
Thus, by way of such training and functional manipulation and via redeployment of the interconnected neural groups, multiple networks will be transiently formed and, even when the mosaics forming the network contain a limited number of tesserae, a very large repertoire of outputs would be possible. It is clear that some assumptions of our argument have experimental evidence, while some others are only testable hypothesis or even speculations.
Brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex and the inferior parietal cortex in humans Rizzolatti et al.
Such neurons have been observed in primates, and are believed to occur in other species including birds. Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI experiments suggest that rather than mirror neurons the human brain areas have mirror neuron systems Iacoboni, As a matter of fact, fMRI studies in humans suggest that a much wider network of brain areas shows mirror properties than was previously thought Gazzola and Keysers, In B the hypothesis is put forward that some mirror neurons could be part of a broader system, the imagery neuronal system, existing in the human brain, and likely in the brain of at least great apes.
The activation of such a system is not necessarily dependent on a sensory input. For further details, see text. As pointed out by Rizzolatti et al. For instance, when a subject observes emotions in others caused by disgusting stimuli or stimuli representing pain, the cingulate cortex and the insula are activated; notably, the same areas are activated also when the subject herself experiences pain or disgust.
In other words, the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum IFO activate when individuals view or become aware of the delight, pain, or disgust of others, as when they experience these emotions first-hand, and this activation is modulated by individual empathic tendencies.
Both feeling emotions and recognizing emotions in others appear to be mediated by an integrative mechanism involving at least at a certain extent a common neural substrate.
In other words, the translation of a second-person observed behavior into a meaningful first-person percept employs to a great extent the same neural substrates which are involved in carrying out that behavior.
Extant data see Molenberghs et al. These findings provide the basis for a more general hypothesis suggesting the existence of INS, that is, of neural systems capable of making representations of objects and feelings of which the subject has no direct experience. It may also be surmised see Figure 2 B that mirror neurons are part of such a broader system existing in the human brain and likely in the brain of at least great apes.
It is worth noting that this hypothesis finds consistency with two basic concepts that were proposed to capture significant aspects of the evolution of biological structures and functions: exaptation and redeployment.
The concept of exaptation has been introduced by Gould and Vrba pointing out the different role in evolution played by exaptation versus adaptation. While adaptation refers to a feature produced by natural selection for its current function, exaptation has been defined as a feature that performs a function but that was not produced by natural selection for its current use such as feathers that might have originally arisen in the context of selection for insulation and not for flying; see, e.
However, natural selection may subsequently operate upon such a new function to better adapt it to the possible new environmental requests. In a somewhat similar theoretical frame Anderson has introduced the concept of evolutionary redeployment or reuse of a neural structure for a new function Anderson, , There are obvious advantages of redeployment of brain areas and Anderson analyses this phenomenon in relation with cognition. From a general point of view it should be pointed out that the acquisition of the capability of performing a new function by a structure previously developed to carry out another function can lead to two different possible cases: - The acquisition of the capability of performing the new function is accompanied by the loss of the capability to perform the original function; - The acquisition of the capability of performing new functions is accompanied by the preservation of the capability to perform the original function.
In this context Anderson, by a careful survey of neuroimaging data, has pointed out that, for example, the Broca area is involved in multiple functional cognitive tasks besides containing motor neurons involved in the control of speech Grodzinsky and Santi, ; Anderson, Thus, the imagery capabilities can be described, according to these theoretical frameworks, as a sort of redeployment process, in which neural structures that are engaged in some action are also reused for the imagery of events involving that action.
This raises a further question: which neurobiological substrates could make possible such redeployment processes? The Three-Dimensional Organization of Brain Networks As briefly mentioned above, it has been proposed that the CNS can be described according to two main organizational paradigms: 1 The horizontal mosaic organization, that is, the more or less stable assembly of structures, see Figure 3 upper panel in mosaics capable of emergent properties Jacob, It should be noted that the concept of mosaic highlights the importance of topology spatial location of the tesserae , however the temporal pattern, i.
It can be surmised that inside each FM there is a mosaic carrying out a crucial function and this mosaic likely is formed by synaptic clusters SCs. Available data demonstrate that a gradient of communication processes transiently originates inside the SCs, which can recruit other structures Shepherd, ; Golding et al.
Thus, each FM is a computational unit only loosely delimited in functional terms, which sends integrated outputs to other FMs. Further details of such a paradigm are given below and have been discussed elsewhere Agnati et al. A schematic representation of the functional module FM as a basic structure of the Russian Doll organization of the central nervous system CNS.
The three-dimensional elaboration of the information inside each FM is pointed out by remarking the horizontal elaboration that takes place within a hierarchic miniaturization level and the vertical elaboration that takes place among the various hierarchic miniaturization levels.
Let us briefly discuss in more detail the neurobiological mechanisms capable of affecting FM boundaries, mosaic assembly and intra-mosaic dynamics. In particular, the protoplasmic astrocytes create micro-anatomical domains within the limits of their processes that can play a role in organizing SC, given that within these anatomical domains astrocytes isolate synapses and send their processes to plaster the wall of the neighboring blood vessels Verkhratsky et al.
Thus, astrocytes seem to have a basic role in shaping FM structures and functions, especially by affecting the possibility of SCs assembling. Synaptic clusters are likely at the core of a FM by being a structural and functional bridge between the cellular networks and the molecular networks.
It should be noticed that SCs have been shown to be very plastic entities from both the structural Holtmaat et al. Notably, it has been reported that plastic changes induced by long term potentiation LTP at one synaptic contact lowers the threshold for the induction of LTP at neighboring synapses at a stimulation strength that did not cause any plastic changes under control conditions Golding et al.
The relevance of SCs can also be deduced by the possibility of reverberating micro-circuits formed by the synaptic contacts belonging to a SC. As pointed out in a previous paper Agnati et al. The number of dendritic spines of basal dendrites of layer III pyramidal neurons also differs in mouse and human temporal cortex.
It should be noticed that a high density of synaptic contacts per neuron allows several alternative pathways in the high density local circuits of the human brain, and therefore a recirculation of the information that may be of fundamental importance for keeping information available for further integrations DeFelipe et al. Furthermore, individual astroglial domains have been hypothesized to be integrated into the superstructure of astroglial syncytia through gap junctions localized on the peripheral processes of astroglial cells Verkhratsky et al.
In this perspective, each FM is a synergy since its response is the integration of the elaborations carried out at multiple scales and synergies are also the mosaics of FMs see below and Agnati et al. It should be noted that this logical scheme, in a loose way, recalls a feature of the Turing B-machine see Box 2 and Turing, ; Agnati and Fuxe, ; Guidolin et al.
The modifier can be simply a suitable arrangement of glial cells that can open pass mode or close interrupt mode the extracellular space pathway via a differential swelling and thus control slow VT communications between the source of a signal and its possible targets Agnati and Fuxe, Suitable signals could also affect gap-junction connections between astrocytes Giaume, and therefore the fast transmission of the information along this channel.
And to the extent that it gives fulfillment to the practitioners, I have no problems with that. But taking that to be universal, again is not wrong as long as one does not impose that on other people who may have different answers to the mysteries.
The most important realization of Hindu seers, the fundamental revelation that comes from their meditation and spiritual search, is that beneath and beyond the material and the physical world lies a spiritual reality.
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We see, observe, and experience countless physical phenomena around us: lightening and sunrise, erosion of rocks and the colors of the rainbow, the blossoming of flowers and the freezing of water in the cold, and many more. But when we become aware of these as various consequences of fundamental physical laws, our depth of understanding is enhanced and our appreciation of the phenomenal world is enormously enriched. Likewise, say the seers, when we become aware of the spiritual substratum of the universe, our experience of it is heightened a thousandfold.
Indeed, it is only when we achieve this that we really begin to see — that is, to understand — anything. And one of those — and, again, this is one of the few words, I think, that many people in a Western culture know from Hinduism — is karma.
There are an associated word which I think is equally important in the Hindu world and which has come into the West with different connotations, is dharma.
Juhani Pallasmaa: The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in Architecture
RAMAN: Now, very simply put, dharma is what we are expected to do and karmais what we do, very simplistically. Dharma has been translated variously as duty, as religion, and so on, or more exactly as an ethical framework.
And there are many treatises in classical Hinduism, which talk of dharma in different ways. One of them, for example, lists such things as mercy and temperance, adherence to logic, the pursuit of knowledge, the pursuit of truth, not getting angry, and these are some of the kinds of ethical principles which… MS. The dharma which is set to be the crucial one is the pursuit of truth and, in many instances, if one quotes from some of the texts, that is everything from being kind to others, being respectful to parents, those kinds of things.
Now, karma is a metaphysical concept, which is the Hindu answer to what is sometimes called the problem of evil. Because evil, in the sense of theodicy, coined as you know by Leibniz in answer to, you know, the French philosopher, Bayle, I think, who talked about how can you say that God is just and good and kind when you see all these things, earthquakes and natural disasters.
So that is the problem of evil and different cultures have come up with different answers. So karma, by itself, is any consequential action, any action that has an impact, positive or negative, on yourself or on others.
We cannot explain that. We talk of people getting away with murder. The Hindu idea is one — not forever. RAMAN: This time, but you will — so the idea of the transmigration of the reincarnation is inevitable in the framework of karma. Now… MS. TIPPETT: And I want to know, though, how you think about that, how you hold that belief, with everything you know about physics and cosmology as a scientist.
Would you be able to talk about that with a fellow scientist in a way that would seem legitimate to them? And I have to confess that, as a physicist, I will leave that open.
I do not have any firm convictions as to the mysteries of post-mortem existence. But modifying Hamlet slightly, I would say there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in our sciences.
This is Speaking of Faith. After a short break, more conversation with V. Raman, including his idea that poetry is to the human condition what the telescope is to the scientist.
Visit us online at speakingoffaith. An interactive feature lets you explore the rich history of Indian music and its roots in ancient Hindu traditions. Vedic hymns and Hindu festivals at your fingertips. Listen when you want, wherever you want. Discover more at speakingoffaith. Speaking of Faith comes to you from American Public Media.
Raman sent to friends and colleagues earlier this year.
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We enjoy music. We play with numbers. In the Hindu framework, there is a goddess who gives us words and language and music and numbers. That goddess is called Saraswati. Today the Hindu world celebrates that name joyously and ceremoniously. By tradition, we are not allowed to read today.
Books in the house are placed on a pedestal and worshipped.
But tomorrow, at crack of dawn, children are expected to rise early from bed and read from a book, with a resolve to do that every day of the year. TIPPETT: So talk to me about how you live with a piece of mythology like that and live with what you know again about the physical universe, about numbers especially.
But there is something called mythopoesy or something called sacred history. These are parts of all the great religions of the world.
And the poetic aspect is extremely important to me because poetry is what gives meaning to existence. Not fact and figures and charts, but poetry. Poetry is essentially a really sophisticated way of experiencing the world. Rykwert et al. Aristotle, De Anima, trans. Kolarevic and K. Klinger New York,. Maclehose, ed. Brown London: J. Dent and Co. Bergin and M. Farrell Dallas, TX, , p.
Sigrid Adriaenssens et al. Farrell and C.
Farrell ; Dallas, TX, , p. Brown London, , pp. Hicks Cambridge, England, a 15— Palmer Ithaca, NY, , pp. In the Poetics of Space, Bachelard meditates on how the character of spaces m in a house contributes to our image of it. A similar comparison could be made using.RAMAN: These are two kinds of experience, and the human spirit, if I may use the word, is so complex, and the human dimension, that we have all kinds of possibilities.
There are an associated word which I think is equally important in the Hindu world and which has come into the West with different connotations, is dharma.
And why was the world created at all? And the poetic aspect is extremely important to me because poetry is what gives meaning to existence. RAMAN: In fact, my own personal view is that the religious experience is precisely in the experience of that mystery. Similar to the work of a craftsman, an.
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